Pulmonary Function Examinations

Pulmonary Function Examinations 2017-12-18T05:09:38+00:00

Project Description

Pulmonary Function Examinations

These are a group of tests, which measure how well the lungs are functioning. This includes how easily you can breathe and the effectiveness with which the lungs are able to supply oxygen to various parts of the body. Our cardiologist may recommend these tests as part of a routine physical examination or if you have symptoms of lung disorders. They may also be needed to assess the functioning of your lungs before surgery.

Small and smooth kidney stones may remain in the kidney or pass without causing pain (called “silent” stones). Stones that lodge in the ureter (tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder) cause spasm in the urinary system and produce pain. This pain is unrelated to the size of the stone.

Other symptoms of kidney stones may include the following:

  • Blood in the urine
  • Increased frequency of urination
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Bladder neck incision
  • Pain and burning during urination
  • Fever, chills, loss of appetite
  • Urinary tract infection

Laboratory Tests

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Kidney Function Test
  • Urine Routine & Microscopy


  • Whole Abdomen with Kidney, Ureter & Bladder (KUB)
  • Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)
  • X-Ray KUB

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotrispy (ESWL) uses highly focused electro magnetic waves projected from outside the body to crush kidney stones anywhere in the urinary system. The stone is reduced to sand-like particles that can pass in the urine. Large stones may require more than one sessions. It can be used for patients of all age groups and those who have heart and breathing problems. However, the procedure is contraindicated for pregnant women. ESWL by 4th generation “SIEMENS LITHOTRIPTER” with ultrasound attachment helps to treat even radioluscent stones, which are not visible in normal fluoroscopy Lithotripters.

Percutaneous Nephrostolithotomy (PCNL) is performed under epidural or spinal anaesthesia. Percutaneous ( through skin) removal of kidney stones (lithotomy) is accomplished through the most direct route. A telescope along with the mechanical lithotripter in inserted to break the stone into fine particles so as to achieve a stone-free status in large and complicated stones. This procedure usually requires hospitalization, and most patients resume normal activity within 2 weeks.

Ureterorenoscopic Lithotrispy with Holmium Laser is performed under epidural and spinal anaesthesia to treat stones located in the middle or lower ureter. A small, fiberoptic instrument (ureteroscope) is passed into the ureter. Large stones are fragmented using 100-Watt Coherent Holmium Laser. The laser fragments the stone into sand like particles, which are then flushed out through the natural urinary passage. The advantage of Holmium Laser is its ability to fragment stones of all compositions with precision. Thus, it is the most effective laser for the treatment of urinary stones. Patients are generally admitted on the same day of the treatment and are discharged next day, which means only 24 hours of hospitalization is required.